Industrial segregation Industrial segregation was lower in Macedonia than in industrial countries and some transition countries. Higher wages in the large private enterprises likely reflect the influence of labor unions, the desire of employers to minimize labor turnover, and operation of internal labor markets. Men remain on the top in terms of pay, but women, when taken as a whole group in comparison to men as a whole group, are on the top in terms of stratification with all of the ensuing social ramifications that such a shift. The contribution of the unexplained difference (due to difference in coefficients) to the observed gender earnings gap is substantial86 percent of the observed earnings gap (0.1011 out.1173 log points) is unexplained7.
A floor for social contributions, set at 65 percent of the average sectoral wage for full-time work, increased the effective payroll tax for part-time workers. Women employees were on average slightly younger and had less experience in the labor market than men. Most of the explained difference in the earnings gap can be attributed to how does crime affect society essay gender differences in education, occupation, and occupation feminization. The gender share in occupation variable explained between 7 percent and 32 percent of the observed pay gap in the studies on the United States, about 25 percent in the cross-country study on EU-12 countries (European Commission 2002 as much as 50-56 percent in Greece (Karamessini and Ioakimoglu. We carried out the standard F tests of homogeneity of earnings equations for men and women. The decision shifted the legal burden of proof to the employer, which should make it easier for employees to win future Title VII cases. Overall, gender segregation in vocational training has remained practically unchanged since 1980.
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