or Not guilty counts as a verdict, an Aye or a Nay counts as a vote in a parliamentary session, and an umpires cry of Yer out counts as calling a runner out. In my view meaning in a language reduces not to speaker meaning but to meaning in speakers idiolects, to what words mean to speakers. Each player wins if and only if the second player guesses right without any help. Most of the people do not feel comfortable speaking before others. In presentation stage the greeting usually comes first and gain attention in the opening. Grices examples of problematic elements are connectives, such as therefore and but, which make a certain contribution to what the speaker means by indicating a certain relation between the two items they connect,.g. 4 There is the question, which I do not mean to be begging, of whether linguistic meaning can be reduced to speaker meaning. It implies only that predicting is an act of communication and that an act of communication is the act of expressing an attitude, such as a belief about the future.
In all these cases you have two communicative intentions, one corresponding to each illocutionary act, and you intend your audience to recognize one by way of recognizing the other. 17 The difference between expressing an attitude and actually possessing it is clear from the following definition: to express an attitude is reflexively to intend the hearer to take one's utterance as reason to think one has that attitude (Bach and Harnish essays over anatomy of the world 1979,. 23 Thats what it is to speak nonliterallyat least if ones does it intentionally. In some parts of speech the prevailing component of the word-meaning is the lexical meaning, in others the grammatical meaning. In all these cases there are specific, socially recognized circumstances in which a person with specific, socially recognized authority may perform an act of a certain sort by uttering words of a certain form.